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                           By Roderick Moore

The members of the political movement known to history as the Levellers 
were active for four years in the 1640s, during the English Civil War.  
They were far ahead of their time in their political thinking, and they 
may justly be called the first libertarians in the world.  There is an 
extensive literature about them, but most of it has been written by 
socialists, and some of the most highly regarded authorities are 
Marxists, so the reader can easily gain a false impression of what the 
movement stood for.  

This Study Guide is designed to direct students of history to the most 
reliable sources of information on the Levellers, and also to indicate 
where some of the Levellers' own writings can be found reprinted, so 
that they can be judged by their own words rather than by the 
distortions of socialist historians.  At a time when our national 
independence is threatened by the advance of federalism, it is more 
important than ever for us to be conscious of our political heritage, 
and the Levellers are a crucial part of this heritage which should not 
be neglected.

                           Study Guide No. 4

              ISSN  0267-7180          ISBN  1 85637 256 1

         An occasional publication of the Libertarian Alliance,
       25 Chapter Chambers, Esterbrooke Street, London SW1P 4NN.

            (c) 1994: Libertarian Alliance; Roderick Moore.

Roderick Moore is an information scientist.  He has a BA in Geography 
from Newcastle University, and a postgraduate diploma in Information and 
Library Studies from Liverpool Polytechnic.

The views expressed in this publication are those of its author, and not 
necessarily  those of the Libertarian Alliance, its Committee, Advisory 
Council or subscribers.

LA Director:  Chris R. Tame          
Editorial Director:  Brian Micklethwait

                     FOR LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY



April 1645

John Lilburne, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Parliamentarian Army, resigns 
his commission on grounds of conscience.  All officers are being 
required to sign the Solemn League and Covenant, which implies support 
for Presbyterianism, but Lilburne is an Independent (i.e. a 
Congregationalist).  In London Lilburne starts to gather a group of 
friends and supporters around him, including William Walwyn and Richard 

July 1645

Lilburne arrested and imprisoned for slandering William Lenthall, the 
Speaker of the House of Commons, whom he accuses of corresponding with 

October 1645

Lilburne released after petition to House of Commons by over two 
thousand leading London citizens.

June 1646

Lilburne arrested and imprisoned for slandering the Earl of Manchester, 
whom he accuses of protecting an officer who has been charged with 

July 1646

Oxford surrenders.  End of the first phase of the Civil War, except for 
a few isolated Royalist garrisons.

August 1646

Overton arrested and imprisoned for printing without a licence.

March 1647

Harlech Castle surrenders.  End of the first phase of the Civil War.

Discontent spreads through the Parliamentarian Army about pay arrears, 
lack of indemnity for wartime acts and arrangements for drafting to 

April 1647

Soldiers in contact with Lilburne's movement start electing "Agitators" 
(delegates) to take their grievances to Parliament.

May 1647

Under pressure from Agitators, who threaten mutiny, Sir Thomas Fairfax 
(commander-in-chief) agrees to call a rally of the whole Army to plan 

June 1647

Agitators take Charles I into their own custody so that Parliament 
cannot negotiate a separate deal with him.  Cornet George Joyce leads a 
force which brings the King from Holmby House (Northamptonshire) to 

Rally of the Army on Newmarket Heath.  Soldiers defy Parliament by 
refusing to disband until grievances redressed.  General Council of the 
Army is formed, representing officers and men.

Second rally on Triploe Heath (Cambridgeshire).  General Council adopts 
a political program incorporating some ideas from Lilburne's movement.

July 1647

Mob incited by Presbyterians (the most conservative Parliamentar- ian 
faction) invades Parliament and forces it to pass motions taking control 
of the London militia (a potential rival army) and inviting the King to 
London for talks.

August 1647

Army marches into London and occupies it without bloodshed.

Parliament reverses motions passed under duress.

September 1647

Overton released from jail.

October 1647

Agitators from five regiments present "The Case of the Army Truly 
Stated" to Fairfax as a manifesto.  The Putney Debates (28th October - 
11th November).  General Council considers the first Agreement of the 
People, a proposed new constitution based on "The Case of the Army".  A 
split appears between Lilburne's movement and the senior officers, known 
as "Grandees". Lilburne's supporters are nicknamed "Levellers" for the 
first time by Grandee spokesmen Oliver Cromwell (second-in-command) and 
Henry Ireton.  Colonel Thomas Rainsborough (M.P. for Droitwich) emerges 
as the highest-ranking Leveller sympathiser in the Army.  Other Leveller 
spokesmen are Agitators Edward Sexby and William Allen, and civilians 
John Wildman and Maximilian Petty.

November 1647

Attempted mutiny by Leveller soldiers at Corkbush Field, near Ware 
(Hertfordshire).  Called off after an appeal by Fairfax and Cromwell.  
One soldier executed.  A serious setback for the movement.

March 1648

Governor of Pembroke Castle declares support for the King.  Start of the 
second phase of the Civil War.

July 1648

"The Moderate", a Leveller weekly newspaper, starts publication.  
Gilbert Mabbott editor.

August 1648

Lilburne released from jail after petition to House of Commons by 

October 1648

Cromwell enters Edinburgh.  End of the second phase of the Civil War, 
except for isolated Royalist garrisons in Yorkshire.

Rainsborough killed by Royalist raiding party at Doncaster.

November 1648

Cromwell worried about the strength of the Presbyterians in Parliament, 
who still want a compromise with the King.  Invites Levellers to meet 
Grandees for new talks about a constitutional settlement.

December 1648

Pride's Purge.  Colonel Thomas Pride bars Presbyterian M.P.s from House 
of Commons.  Balance of power tilts towards Grandees.

The Whitehall Debates (14th December - 13th January). Levellers present 
the second Agreement of the People to the General Council of Officers, 
which rejects it because of proposals for religious toleration.

January 1649

Charles I tried and executed for treason against the people.

February 1649

House of Commons votes to abolish monarchy and House of Lords, and 
appoints Council of State as executive authority.

Leveller activity in Army intensifies.  Grandees ban petitions to 
Parliament by soldiers.

Lilburne writes "England's New Chains Discovered", condemning Grandees 
and Council of State for exercising arbitrary power.

March 1649

Eight Leveller troopers go to Fairfax and demand the restoration of the 
right to petition.  Five of them are cashiered.

Lilburne writes "The Second Part of England's New Chains Discovered", 
repeating his attacks.

Pontefract Castle surrenders.  End of the second phase of the Civil War.

Lilburne, Walwyn, Overton and Thomas Prince (Leveller treasurer) 
arrested for treason by order of the Council of State.

April 1649

Mutiny by Leveller soldiers in London, led by Robert Lockyer.  Mutineers 
surrender after a personal appeal by Fairfax and Cromwell.  Lockyer 

May 1649

Mutinies by Leveller soldiers in Salisbury, Aylesbury and Banbury.  
Mutineers from Salisbury and Aylesbury join forces near Abingdon and 
head west.  Fairfax and Cromwell lead a flying column from London which 
overtakes and defeats the rebels at Burford (Oxfordshire).  Three 
soldiers executed.

Mutineers from Banbury (a much smaller group) defeated at 

September 1649

Mutiny by Leveller soldiers in Oxford.  Officers of the regiment restore 
order.  Two soldiers executed.  "The Moderate" ceases publication.

October 1649

Lilburne tried for treason and acquitted.

November 1649

Lilburne, Walwyn, Overton and Prince released from jail.

End of the Levellers as an organised movement.


                       BOOKS ABOUT THE LEVELLERS

AYLMER, G.E. (ed.)
The Levellers in the English Revolution
Thames and Hudson, London, 1975
Contains 12 Leveller pamphlets and petitions (some of them abridged), 
extracts from the Putney and Whitehall Debates, and a 47-page historical 
Introduction.  A very useful introductory work, giving a well-balanced 
account of the movement.

The Levellers and the English Revolution
Spokesman, Nottingham, 1976 (first published 1961)
The most comprehensive history of the Levellers.  Unfortunately the 
author was a Marxist.  Provides some important pieces of information 
which cannot be found in any of the other sources listed here, but it is 
constantly necessary to make allowances for Brailsford's political 
views, which intrude throughout.  A book which should be treated with 
caution, especially regarding William Walwyn, whom the author tries to 
turn into a socialist by bending the evidence.

FRANK, Joseph
The Levellers
Russell and Russell, New York, 1969 (first published 1955)
Traces the history of the Levellers through the writings of John 
Lilburne, William Walwyn and Richard Overton.  An objective and 
comprehensive account of the development of their ideas.  Sometimes 
rather sketchy about background events, but still highly recommendable.

GREGG, Pauline
Free-Born John
Dent, London, 1986 (first published 1961)
A comprehensive biography of John Lilburne (1615-1657), the leader of 
the Levellers.  Factual and very informative.  The author's socialist 
views only show through in one or two places, mainly in the last 

HALLER, William, and DAVIES, Godfrey (eds.)
The Leveller Tracts, 1647-1653
Peter Smith., Gloucester (Massachusetts), 1964 (first published 1944) 
Contains 17 pamphlets and petitions by or about the Levellers, and a 
50-page historical Introduction.  Useful and informative.

MACMICHAEL, Jack R., and TAFT, Barbara (eds.)
The Writings of William Walwyn
University of Georgia Press, Athens (Georgia), 1989. William Walwyn 
(1600-1680) was the theorist of the Leveller movement, while John 
Lilburne was the man of action.  This book contains 31 pamphlets by 
Walwyn on politics, religion and medicine, along with a 51-page 
biographical Introduction.  An insight into the mind of a truly 
compassionate man.

MORTON, A.L. (ed.)
Freedom in Arms
Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1975
Contains 19 Leveller pamphlets and letters.  Also includes a 59 page 
historical Introduction, which reflects the author's Marxist views in 
places, but is still quite informative.

SHAW, Howard
The Levellers
Longmans, London, 1968
A concise history of the movement and its religious, political and 
economic background.  A good introductory work, generally fair and 
balanced, although in a few places the author seems to have relied on 
socialist sources.

WOLFE, Don M. (ed.)
Leveller Manifestoes of the Puritan Revolution
Humanities Press, New York, 1967 (first published 1944)
Contains 20 pamphlets and petitions by the Levellers, about them or 
relevant to them.  Also includes an Introduction extending to 108 pages 
which gives a fair and well-balanced account of the movement's history.

Shorter Works About the Levellers

"The Levellers - Britain's First Libertarians?"
In: "Economic Affairs" 9(1), October/November 1988, pp. 33-35.

HOILE, David
The Levellers: Libertarian Radicalism and the English Civil War.
Libertarian Heritage No. 5, Libertarian Alliance, London, 1992

The only works published in Britain in recent years which deal with the 
Levellers from an explicitly libertarian point of view.  Both well worth 



England's Birthright Justified
John Lilburne
October 1645
Defends the rule of law against arbitrary power.  Argues that 
Parliament's own power must be limited by law to protect individual 
rights.  Attacks the monopolies of preaching (the established Church), 
the wool trade (the Merchant Adventurers) and printing (the Stationers' 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 56-62 (abridged).

England's Lamentable Slavery
Anon. - attributed to William Walwyn
October 1645
Takes the form of an open letter to Lilburne.  Praises his stand against 
the arbitrary power of Parliament, but warns him that the Magna Carta to 
which he appeals is only a part of the people's rights. 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 63-67 (abridged); 
MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 143-153.

A Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens
Anon. - possibly a joint work by Richard Overton and William Walwyn     
July 1646
Argues that Parliament should be accountable to the people as an agent 
to a principal.  Attacks the practice of imprisonment for debt and calls 
for religious toleration and freedom of the press. 
Reprinted in: MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 223-226 (extracts); 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 109-130.

A Demur to the Bill for Preventing the Growth and Spreading of Heresy
Anon. - attributed to William Walwyn
October 1646
A plea for free speech and freedom of conscience in matters of religion.  
Argues that truth should be allowed to defeat error in an open debate. 
Reprinted in: MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 236-244.

An Arrow Against All Tyrants
Richard Overton
October 1646
Puts forward a natural rights argument for the freedom of the 
individual. Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 69-70 (abridged).

The "Large Petition"
March 1647
Presented by Lilburne's London supporters to Parliament, which ordered 
it to be burned as seditious.  Calls for religious freedom, the 
abolition of tithes, the dissolution of the Merchant Adventur- ers, the 
translation of all laws into English, the abolition of compulsory 
self-incrimination in court and the humane treatment of criminals. 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 75-81; 
Morton 1975, pp. 87-99; 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 131-141.

An Appeal From the Degenerate Representative Body
Richard Overton   
July 1647
Attacks Parliament for acting tyrannically and betraying the trust 
placed in it by the people.  Argues that reason is the basis of all law. 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 82-87 (extracts); 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 154-195.

The Case of the Army Truly Stated
October 1647
The Agitators' manifesto.  Deals largely with soldiers' grievances, but 
also includes political proposals such as biennial elections to 
Parliament with votes for "all the freeborn", as well as the abolition 
of monopolies, religious freedom and other points repeated from the 
Large Petition. 
Reprinted in: Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 64-87; 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 196-222.

An Agreement of the People for a Firm and Present Peace
(The first "Agreement of the People")
October 1647
Proposes biennial elections to Parliament and electoral districts with 
equal numbers of inhabitants (implying votes for all men).  Matters to 
be "reserved by the represented to themselves" as basic rights which 
Parliament may not violate include religious freedom, a ban on 
conscription and strict equality under the law. 
Reprinted in,: Aylmer 1975, pp. 88-96; 
Morton 1975, pp. 135-149; 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 223-234.

January 1648
Circulated for signature but never formally presented to Parliament.  
Attacks corruption and calls for all government officials to be held 
accountable to the people through Parliament.  Accepts a compromise on 
voting rights proposed by the Grandees at Putney, under which servants 
and beggars would have had no votes. 
Reprinted in: Wolfe 1944, pp. 259-272.

September 1648
Presented to Parliament by the London Levellers.  Urges Parliament not 
to sign a treaty with the King, and calls for enclosures of common land 
to be reversed or carried out only or mainly for the benefit of the 
poor.  Also calls on Parliament not to abolish private property or 
equalise wealth by force, thus repudiating an allegation against the 
Levellers which their opponents had started to make. 
Reprinted in Aylmer 1975, pp. 131-138; 
Haller and Davies 1944,pp. 147-155; 
Morton 1975, pp. 181-194; 
Wolfe 1944, pp. 279-290.

Foundations of Freedom, or an Agreement of the People
(The second "Agreement of the People")
December 1648
Puts forward detailed proposals for the election of a new Parliament, 
with votes for all except servants and beggars.  Lists eight matters to 
be "reserved from the power of the people's representatives", including 
a ban on forcible equalisation of wealth.  Presents a list of grievances 
to be redressed, urging Parliament to abolish base tenures as well as 
repeating earlier demands. 
Reprinted in: Wolfe 1944, pp. 291-303.

No Papist Nor Presbyterian
December 1648
Argues for the extension of religious freedom to Roman Catholics. 
Reprinted in: Wolfe 1944, pp. 304-310.

England's New Chains Discovered
John Lilburne
February 1649
Denounces the new political system for failing to fulfil the Levellers' 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 142-148 (abridged); 
Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 156-170.

The Second Part of England's New Chains Discovered
John Lilburne     
March 1649
The pamphlet which led to the arrest of the four Leveller leaders for 
Reprinted in: Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 171-189.

A Manifestation
John Lilburne, William Walwyn, Thomas Prince and Richard Overton     
April 1649
Written to refute the smears and abuse circulated by the authors' 
political opponents, who were accusimg them of anarchism and atheism as 
well as seeking to equalise wealth by force. 
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 150-158; 
Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 276-284; 
MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 334-343; 
Morton 1975, pp. 245-259.

An Agreement of the Free People of England
(The third "Agreement of the People")
May 1649
The Levellers' final constitutional program, written in the Tower of 
London as "a peace-offering to this distressed nation".  Proposes annual 
elections to Parliament, with servants and beggars excluded from the 
franchise, and lists a large number of basic rights which Parliament is 
not to be empowered to infringe.
Reprinted in: Aylmer 1975, pp. 159-168; 
Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 318-328; 
MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 344-347 (introduction only); 
Morton 1975, pp. 161-277; Wolfe 1944, pp. 397-410.

Walwyn's Just Defence
William Walwyn     
"Circa" June 1649
A reply to "Walwyn's Wiles", a pamphlet signed by seven opponents and 
published in May 1649, which portrayed Walwyn as an unprincipled and 
Machiavellian figure.
Reprinted in: Haller and Davies 1944, pp. 350-398; 
MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 383-432.

Juries Justified
William Walwyn
December 1651
A defence of trial by jury.  Argues that conscience is the most 
important quality in a juror, and ordinary people's consciences are as 
good as anyone's.
Reprinted in MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 433-445.

For a Free Trade
William Walwyn
May 1652
Written in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the Council of State to 
abolish the Levant Company's mononoly of trade with the Middle East.  
Appeals to the common law, and also anticipates some of Adam Smith's 
arguments by over a century.
Reprinted in: MacMichael and Taft 1989, pp. 446-452.

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