"It's Free Because It's Yours" by Dominick Cavallo



*Dominick Cavallo is Professor of History at Adelphi University.

[In the original St. Martin's Press edition, note 1 below was note 3, note 2 below was note 1, and note 3 below was note 2. The change in order was necessary due to the transcription of a facing page graphic. —en]

1. Emmett Grogan, Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps (New York: Citadel, 1990), 247; Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury: A History (New York: Random House, 1984), 97.

2. Jerry Hopkins, ed., The Hippie Papers (New York: Signet, 1968, 17-18; see also "The Digger Papers," a collection of their leaflets in The Realist, August 1968.

3. Nicholas von Hoffman, We Are the People Our Parents Warned Us Against (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1989, originally published in 1968), 140.

4. Grogan, Ringolevio, 238-239; "Digger Papers," 5-8.

5. "In the Clear," San Francisco Chronicle, 30 November 1966, 1; Grogan, Ringolevio, 253-258; "The Frame," Berkeley Barb, 4 November 1966, 1, 5.

6. Don McNeill, Moving Through Here (New York: Knopf, 1970), 121.

7. "Digger Papers," 6.

8. Grogan, Ringolevio, 277.

9. George Metevsky [sic], "Delving the Diggers," Berkeley Barb, 21 October 1966, 3.

10. R. G. Davis, The San Francisco Mime Troupe: The First Ten Years (Palo Alto: Ramparts Press, 1975).

11. W. J. Rorabough, Berkeley at War: The 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 144.

12. For the Diggers' influence on other cultural radicals, see Abbie Hoffman, The Best of Abbie Hoffman (New York: Four Walls, Eight Windows, 1989), 17-21. On the relationship between the Beat movement and the Diggers, see David Burner, Making Peace with the Sixties (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), chapter 4.

13. Grogan, Ringolevio, 318.

14. "Digger Papers," 2-3.

15. Kevin Starr, America and the California Dream (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), 51-61.

16. Whitman quoted in Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (New York: Vintage, 1950), 48.

17. Starr, Dream, 61, 240-241; Doris Muscatine, Old San Francisco (New York: Putnam, 1975), 11.

18. Roger Lorchin, San Francisco: 1846-1956 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 100-104.

19. Ibid., 342-347.

20. Muscatine, San Francisco, 11; Oscar Lewis, Bay Window Bohemia (New York: Doubleday, 1965), 8.

21. Starr, Dream, 61.

22. Lewis, Bay, 26-27.

23. Starr, Dream, 264.

24. Ibid., 240-241.

25. Richard Miller, Bohemia: The Protoculture Then and Now (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1977), 216-220.

26. Ibid., 67.

27. Ann Charters, Kerouac (New York: St Martin's Press, 1973), 238-241.

28. Howard Becker, ed., Culture and Civility in San Francisco (Chicago: Transaction, 1971), 6, 8-9.

29. Miller, Protoculture, 316-230, 244.

30. David Horowitz, Student (New York: Ballantine, 1962), chapters, 2, 7, 8.

31. On the FSM and the various student uprisings at Berkeley during the sixties, see Rorabough's excellent history of the period, Berkeley at War.

32. Ibid., 28.

33. Ibid., 30-31.

34. Ibid., 31-47.

35. Mario Savio, "An End to History," in Alexander Bloom and Wini Breines, eds. Takin' it to the Streets (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 111.

36. Clark Kerr, "The Uses of the University," in Immanuel Wallerstein and Paul Starr, eds., The University Crisis Reader, Vol. 1 (New York: Vintage, 1971), 84-86.

37. Michael Rossman quoted in Ronald Fraser et al., 1968: A Student Generation in Revolt (New York: Pantheon, 1988), 96. On the socioeconomic backgrounds of FSM activists, see Rorabough, Berkeley at War, 33-34.

38. Paul Perry and Ken Babbs, On the Bus (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990), 185-186.

39. Ibid., 47.

40. On the history of the secret testing of hallucinogens by the United States government, see Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin, Acid Dreams (New York: Grove Press, 1985).

41. Perry and Babbs, Bus, 36.

42. Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test (New York: Bantam, 1968), 65.

43. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 55 On Bill Graham and his career, see Bill Graham and Robert Greenfield, Bill Graham Presents (New York: Doubleday, 1992), and John Glatt, Rage and Roll: Bill Graham and the Selling of Rock (New York: Birch Lane Press, 1993).

44. Graham and Greenfield, Graham, 3-28.

45. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 41-50.

46. Ralph Gleason, The Jefferson Airplane and the San Francisco Sound (New York: Signet, 1969), 5-7, 60; on the Trips Festival, see Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 43-46, and Graham and Greenfield, Graham, 137-138.

47. Graham and Greenfield, Graham, 142.

48. Ibid.

49. On the history of the San Francisco Sound, see Jack McDonough, San Francisco Rock (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1985) and Joel Selvln, Summer of Love (New York: Dutton, 1994).

50. Bill Thompson quoted in Graham and Greenfield, Graham, 166.

51. Henry David Thoreau, "Walking," in Carl Bode, ed., The Portable Thoreau (New York: Viking, 1947), 604.

52. For typical examples of media coverage of the Haight-Ashbury in the mid sixties, see "Happenings Are Happening," Time, 4 March 1966; "The Nitty-Gritty Sound," Newsweek, 19 December 1966, "Drop-outs With a Mission," Newsweek, 6 February 1967, and Hunter Thompson, "The 'Hashbury' is the Capital of the Hippies," New York Times Magazine, 14 May 1967.

53. The word "hippie" antedates the sixties. In his autobiography, Malcolm X said that young whites who frequented Harlem in the 1940s and emulated the "hip" talk of black musicians were called "hippies" by black people. Malcolm X with Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (New York: Ballantine, 1964), 94.

54. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 171.

55. Ibid., 253.

56. Ibid., 78-88; Gene Anthony, Summer of Love: Haight-Ashbury at its Highest, (Millbrae, Ca: Celestial Arts, 1980), 58-61, 94; Leonard Wolf, ed., Voices from the Love Generation (Boston: Little, Brown, 1968), xlii, xxix-xxx; and Helen Perry, The Human Be-In (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 99-100. See also Sherri Cavan, Hippies of the Haight (St. Louis: New Critics Press, 1972).

57. Davis, Mime Troupe, 154. On the Mime Troupe, see "Mime Troup [sic] Always Set to Shuffle," Berkeley Barb (July 28, 1967), 9.

58. Davis, Mime, 32.

59. R.G. Davis, "Radical, Independent, Chaotic, Anarchic Theatre vs. Institutionalized, University, Little, Commercial, ford and Stock Theatres," Studies on the Left, Spring 1964, 36. On the history of mime and related issues, see Anthony Caputi, Buffo: The Genius of Vulgar Comedy (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1978).

60. Davis, Mime, 32, 39-40.

61. Davis, "Radical," 36-37.

62. Davis, Mime, 70; Grogan, Ringolevio, 235-236; and Wolf, Love Generation, 255-256.

63. Claude Schumacher, ed., Artaud on Theatre (London: Methuen, 1989), xxiii, 92, 107-109.

64. Grogan, Ringolevio, 318.

65. "The Ideology of Failure," Berkeley Barb, (September 22, 1967), 3.

66. Peter Coyote, Sleeping Where I Fall (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1998), 70.

67. Grogan, Ringolevio, 238.

68. Grogan, Ringolevio, 318, 238.

69. Coyote quoted in ibid., v.

70. "Digger Papers," 3.

71. Berg quoted in Grogan, Ringolevio, 300.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid., 300-301; "Digger Papers," 3.

74. See the testimony of a Digger about free store "customers" who emptied the stores in Joan Morrison and Robert Morrison, eds., From Camelot to Kent State (New York: New York Times Books, 1987), 320-321.

75. Coyote, Sleeping, 90.

76. "Love Community, Conspiracy Clash," Berkeley Barb, 10 March 1967, 1, 7.

77. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 261. On nineteenth-century images of a pastoral industrialism, see Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964).

78. "Digger Papers," 4-6.

79. Ibid.

80. Ibid., 9.

81. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 108-109,114-115.

82. Grogan, Ringolevio, 299.

83. Ibid., 278.

84. "Love Community," 1, 7; Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 259-260.

85. Grogan, Ringolevio, 248, 278.

86. Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture (New York: Perigree Books, 1980), 97-98.

87. For two versions of the Digger fiasco at the SDS conference, see Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987), 227-230, and Grogan, Ringolevio, 385-403.

88. On the Alan Burke episode, see Grogan, Ringolevio, 253-256.

89. Wolf, Love Generation, 113-134.

90. Coyote quoted in von Hoffman, We Are the People, 132.

91. "Digger Papers," 3-4.

92. Radical Whigs quoted in Michael Kammen, Spheres of Liberty: Changing Perceptions of Liberty in American Culture (lthaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986), 31.

93. Henry David Thoreau, Walden, in The Portable Thoreau, 343.

94. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "The American Scholar," in Mark Van Doren, ed., The Portable Emerson (New York: Penguin, 1957), 34-35.

95. William James, Essays in Pragmatism (New York: Hafner, 1948), 144-145, 43.

96. Berg quoted in Wolf, Love, 260.

97. Ibid.

98. Emerson, "American Scholar," 39.

99. Coyote quoted in Wolf, Love, 117-118 and in Derek Taylor, It Was Twenty Years Ago Today (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987), 191-192.

100. Grogan, Ringolevio, 367.

101. Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, (Middletown, Conn.: Weslyan University Press, 1973), 6.

102. Peter Coyote, Introduction to Ringolevio, ix.

103. Grogan, Ringolevio, 367.

104. Ibid., 367-378.

105. On the mountain men and their experiences, see Robert M. Utley, A Life Wild and Perilous: Mountain Men and the Paths to the Pacific (New York: Holt, 1997), and Henry Nash Smith, chapter 8 in Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (New York: Vintage, 1950).

106. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Holt, 1920), 4.

107. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer (New York: Signet, 1963), 71-72.

108. On attitudes toward the West and the frontier, see Richard Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation (New York: Athenaeum, 1992) and Regeneration Through Violence; Smith, Virgin Land; R. W. B. Lewis, The American Adam: (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955). Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973). On turn-of-the-century fears that an urban, sedentary life would undermine American individualism and "rigor," see Dominick Cavallo, Muscles and Morals: Organized Playgrounds and Urban Reform, 1880-1920 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), chapter 2.

109. Quoted in Nash, Wilderness, 153.

110. Lewis, Adam, 91-101.

111. Ibid.

112. Thoreau, "Walking," 610-611.

113. Slotkin, Regeneration, 506-507. On Daniel Boone, see John Mack Faragher, Daniel Boone (New York: Holt, 1992).

114. Grogan's views on women were typical within the counterculture. See the interviews of Haight-Ashbury hippies and Diggers in Wolfe's Love Generation.

115. On the counterculture and the Native American, see Anthony, Summer of Love, 147, Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 172, Hopkins, Hippie, 20; and Grogan, Ringolevio, 280.

116. von Hoffman, We Are The People, 137-138.

117. For Jefferson on Native American society, see Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia in Merrill Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings (New York: Library of America, 1984), 220.

118. Hopkins, Hippie, 21.

119. James Fenimore Cooper, The Last of the Mohicans (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957), 420.

120. D. H. Lawrence, Studies in Classic American Literature (New York: Viking, 1923) 59.

121. Slotkin, Regeneration, 556.

122. Thoreau, Walden, 456-457.

123. Turner, Frontier, 2-3.

124. On the demise of the Haight-Ashbury, see Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 220-221, Grogan, Ringolevio, 445-446, von Hoffman, We, 15, David Smith and John Luce, Love Needs Care: A History of San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971), 155-160, 207-216, 253-264, and David Smith et al., "The Health of the Haight-Ashbury," in Becker, ed.. Culture and Civility, 81, 90-96.

125. "Digger Papers," 8; Smith and Luce, Love, 207-209.

126. Smith, "Health," 81-96.

127. von Hoffman, We Are The People, 15.

128. Perry, Haight-Ashbury, 287.

129. Ibid., 227.

130. Ibid., 287-288.

131. Peter Coyote, "The Free-Fall Chronicles: Crossing the Free Frame of Reference" (C/Netscape/DiggersT3, HTM), 6.

132. "Digger Papers," 8.

133. Kesey quoted in Perry, Bus, 47.

134. Grogan, Ringolevio, 492.

135. Jack Kerouac, On the Road (New York: Viking, 1955), 156.

136. Coyote, Introduction to Ringolevio.

137. On the counterculture's legacies, see Harvey Mansfield, "The Legacy of the Late Sixties," in Reassessing the Sixties, Stephen Macedo, ed. (New York: Norton, 1997); Peter Clecak, America's Quest for the Ideal Self (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983); Timothy Miller, The Hippies and American Values (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991). On the counterculture's role in inspiring the neoconservative movement, see Peter Steinfels, The Neoconservatives (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979). For specific comments on the hippie legacy, see David Burner, Making Peace with the 60s (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), 222; William Chafe, The Unfinished Joumey (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 411-412; Allen Matusow, The Unraveling of America (New York: Harper and Row, 1985), 305-307; Daniel Yankelovich, The New Morality (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974), 3-9, 13-22, 23-29. By contrast, see Yankelovich's earlier polls in Generations Apart (New York: CBS, 1969). See also, David Caute, The Year of the Barricades: A Journey Through 1968 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 462..

138. Emerson quoted in Yehoshua Arieli, Individualism and Nationalism in American Ideology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964), 278.



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